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Emerald ash borer Infestation

 
Over the last decade, the Emerald ash borer has been devastating Ash trees throughout the northeastern and mid-western United States.  Recently, it was determined that an additional 12 species are now being affected.
 
Other Host Tree Species
  • Maple
  • Willows
  • Poplars
  • Elms
  • Birches
  • Mimosa
  • Buckeyes
  • Sycamores
  • Katsura
  • Plane trees
  • Horse Chestnuts
  • Golden Raintree
The Emerald ash borer spreads quickly and decimates stands of trees over relatively short periods of time.  Very little can be done to stop the invader.
 
The following information may help identify trees that may be infested.  Chemical treatments and physical removal are the only two methods currently used in dealing with this problem.
 
 
 
 
For Forest Park residents who would like to replace or plant new trees, click the link above. 
Selected trees are provided at a 75% discount. 
 
 
 
 
Emerald ash borer
(Agrilus planipennis)
EAB1
 
 
 
What is an Emerald ash borer?
 
The Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic, invasive wood-boring insect that infests and primarily kills native North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), both in forests and landscape plantings. Adults are dark metallic green, 1/2 inch in length and 1/8 inch wide, and fly only from mid-May to September. Larvae spend the rest of the year developing beneath the bark.
 
 

History

 
Emerald ash borer was unknown in North America until June 2002, when it was discovered killing ash trees in southeast Michigan and neighboring Windsor, Ontario. It is native to eastern Russia, northeastern China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan and Korea, where it occurs on several species of ash. It was probably imported into Michigan via infested ash crating or pallets at least 15 or 20 years ago.
 
 
Since its accidental importation, EAB has infested and killed millions of trees in southeast Michigan and northwest Ohio.
 
 
 
US map
 

EAB Ohio map

 
The State of Ohio
 
Emerald Ash Borer was identified in Ohio in 2003. The Ohio Department of Agriculture has been battling the pest through detection, regulation, and public outreach in an attempt to protect the state's more than 3.8 billion ash trees.
 
The pest has since spread from the initial detection in near Toledo to its present confirmed distribution in 63 counties. Because the pest has been found throughout most of Ohio, including Wayne National Forest, there are no longer quarantine regulations in place for emerald ash borer within the state. Despite the fact that the Ohio quarantine has been lifted, it is still recommended that Ohioans continue to exercise caution when moving firewood.
 
TO DATE, infestations have been identified in Allen, Ashland, Auglaize, Belmont, Butler, Clark, Clermont, Clinton, Columbiana, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Darke, Defiance, Delaware, Erie, Fairfield, Franklin, Fulton, Geauga, Guernsey, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Henry, Huron, Knox, Lake, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Lorain, Lucas, Madison, Mahoning, Marion, Medina, Mercer, Miami, Montgomery, Morrow, Muskingum, Ottawa, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Portage, Putnam, Richland, Sandusky, Scioto, Seneca, Shelby, Summit, Trumbull, Union, Van Wert, Warren, Wayne, Williams, Wood, and Wyandot counties.
 
 
Insects Impacts on Ash trees
 
Just like chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease before it, EAB is capable of eliminating an entire tree species from forests and cities throughout the land. This makes it one of the most serious environmental threats now facing North American forests.
 
 
ash tree
 
Ash species known to be infested include green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), white (F. americana), black (F. nigra), and blue ash (F. quadrangulata), as well as horticultural cultivars of these species (see above for other host tree species). Only living trees are colonized. EAB will not colonize a dead tree. Native host plants in Asia also include ash species, with F. mandshurica (Manchurian ash) and F. chinensis being primary hosts.
 
Adult beetles feed on folia-git tunnels under the bark where it feeds primarily on phloem and xylem tissue. This disrupts the flow of carbohydrates and water between the canopy and roots, which results in canopy thinning, branch dieback, and finally tree death, typically within two to four years of initial infestation.
 
 
Signs that your tree is infested
 
You must first learn how to identify which trees are Ash trees. 
 
ASH TREE Identification Guide - Dr. David Roberts, Michigan State University Extension
 
Once this has been completed, examine your trees closely for signs of infestation. 
If your Ash tree is not infected now, it most likely will be very soon. 
 

ash borer 1

 

exit hole

 

damage

Emerald ash borer w/exit hole

 

"D" shaped exit hole

 

Damage under the bark

         
 

larva

 
   

Emerald ash borer larva

   
 
Treatment
 
There are conflicting thoughts as to which is better - cutting down the tree and replanting (other tree species) or chemically treating it.  There are many factors that contribute to which type of treatment is chosen.  Some intangible factors such as property values, shade and cooling, and quality of life supersede more tangible factors such as costs.  However, as long as there are Ash trees, there will be Emerald ash borers. 

Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer

 
For Additional Information
 
If you are located in a county not listed above and believe you have EAB in your trees, please contact ODA at 1-888-OHIO-EAB. Otherwise, please review the Ohio State University Cooperative Extension for more information.
 
If you have questions about interstate movement of ash materials or firewood, please contact USDA - APHIS Ohio EAB Program at (614)322-4717.

Finding an Ohio Certified Arborist for professional assistance.

 


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